HIV is a very serious disease in which the immune system gradually sweeten weakened over time, so that the infected person becomes vulnerable to diseases that are otherwise not dangerous for healthy people. It is very important that the infection is detected in time thus preventing serious complications of long kommen HIV, but for many, an infection with the virus are not any symptoms. It is therefore important to take a test if one engages in risk activities in a group where HIV occurs frequently, or if you suspect you may have been infected.
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Antibodies constitute the foundation for the diagnosis of HIV
The body will generate antibodies against all microorganisms which have a potential to cause disease, although smitteagensen ordinarily relatively inoffensive. These molecules are the basis for diagnosis and testing of many infectious diseases, and it will be possible to detect them in the blood 3-4 weeks after you have been infected by HIV. In this connection a positive result mean detectable amounts of HIV antibodies in the blood, and thus be an expression of infection, while a negative result will be good news for the test subject. It does take some time before the levels of antibodies in the blood is high enough that you can detect them with 100 percent certainty, and you risk a so-called “false negative test result” if you test too early. An important rule of thumb is that the tests, whether it is done in a hospital or doctor’s office, will be 80 percent accurate after three weeks and 100 percent accurate after three months. The period between the time of infection and three months have passed, called “window”, and during this time there is a risk always a false negative result. It is also during this period that is contagious, so that the potential harm clean society is greatest during this time. During this time you have to test themselves regularly with a rapid test for HIV, as well as practicing safe sex with a condom.
How is a HIV test?
The procedures behind an HIV test depends on whether you take the sample at home or in the hospital, but in principle takes the always based on the test person’s blood. This can be tapped with a blood sample from the arm (hospital), or through a small fingerstick as by an HIV home test. At the hospital will specimen sent to the laboratory for further analysis in terms of ELISA and Western Blot. ELISA works by detecting antibodies to HIV in the blood, in the same way as a rapid test for HIV, but the difference lies in that it can indicate how aggressive the infection is. Western Blot detects proteins and structural components against HIV in the blood, but it is more expensive and takes longer to perform, so it is not suitable for ordinary people who want to test themselves regularly. It is rather quite well suited for infants born to mothers with HIV, since newborns receive maternal antibodies from breast milk through breastfeeding. This means that infants of mothers with HIV will always have a positive result on an HIV test if one makes a rapid test or ELISA, but Western Blot which detects viral proteins, however, will be very suitable for this purpose.